Apps in Django and starting with Views
Each application you write in Django consists of a Python package that follows a certain convention. Django comes with a utility that automatically generates the basic directory structure of an app, so you can focus on writing code rather than creating directories.
An app is a Web application that does something – e.g., a Weblog system, a database of public records or a small poll app. A project is a collection of configuration and apps for a particular website. A project can contain multiple apps. An app can be in multiple projects.
Creating a Blogs App
So, like mentioned above, Django comes with a utility that automatically generated the basic directory structure of an app. So, to do that, run the following in the terminal
python3 manage.py startapp blogs
Now, your folder structure should be like follows
. ├── blogs │ ├── __init__.py │ ├── admin.py │ ├── apps.py │ ├── migrations │ │ └── __init__.py │ ├── models.py │ ├── tests.py │ └── views.py ├── db.sqlite3 ├── livecode247 │ ├── __init__.py │ ├── __pycache__ │ │ ├── __init__.cpython-38.pyc │ │ ├── settings.cpython-38.pyc │ │ ├── urls.cpython-38.pyc │ │ └── wsgi.cpython-38.pyc │ ├── asgi.py │ ├── settings.py │ ├── urls.py │ └── wsgi.py └── manage.py
Now, to make Django know, that we have created an app and we want it to be recognised by the project, we go to
settings.py and update the INSTALLED_APPS variable to look like this
INSTALLED_APPS = [ 'django.contrib.admin', 'django.contrib.auth', 'django.contrib.contenttypes', 'django.contrib.sessions', 'django.contrib.messages', 'django.contrib.staticfiles', 'blogs', ## New Line ]
Writing your first view
Write the following in the
from django.http import HttpResponse def index(request): return HttpResponse("Hello")
So, first of all we are important
HttpResponse class from
django.http module. This is basically to give a response when a person hits the url which we are going to map in the just a second.
Then we create a function called
index which takes in a parameter called
request by default. This is needed for a lot of stuff, like finding URL Params, request body etc.
Then inside the function we return a
Mapping our url
To call the view, we need to map it to a URL - and for this we need a URLconf.
To create a URLconf in the polls directory, create a file called urls.py. Your app directory should now look like this
. ├── blogs │ ├── __init__.py │ ├── __pycache__ │ │ ├── __init__.cpython-38.pyc │ │ ├── admin.cpython-38.pyc │ │ └── models.cpython-38.pyc │ ├── admin.py │ ├── apps.py │ ├── migrations │ │ ├── __init__.py │ │ └── __pycache__ │ │ └── __init__.cpython-38.pyc │ ├── models.py │ ├── tests.py │ ├── urls.py │ └── views.py ├── db.sqlite3 ├── livecode247 │ ├── __init__.py │ ├── __pycache__ │ │ ├── __init__.cpython-38.pyc │ │ ├── settings.cpython-38.pyc │ │ ├── urls.cpython-38.pyc │ │ └── wsgi.cpython-38.pyc │ ├── asgi.py │ ├── settings.py │ ├── urls.py │ └── wsgi.py └── manage.py
blogs/urls.py add the following code
from django.urls import path from . import views urlpatterns = [ path("/", views.index, name="index"), ]
- In line 1, we are importing
- In line 2, we are importing
views.pyfrom . (which means the current directory)
- In line 4, we set a variable called
urlpatterns. This is a default vriable which Django looks for to set urls
- In line 5, we set a path, with url as "/" (that basically yourwebsite.com) which points to
views.pywhich we set some time ago, and then we give it a name. Naming URL's is pretty useful in Django which we'll see when we start making templates
Notice that there is a
urls.py file inside the
livecode247 directory as well. That is an autogenerated file made by Django.
What we need to do is include our urls inside
blogs app inside this so that Django knows that it needs to use those urls for a specific path. We can do that as follows
includeas an import from
django.urls. So your line 17 should look like this
from django.urls import path, include
Add a path as follows
So, now if we go to 127.0.0.1:8000/blogs you should see this
That's it for this episode! In the next one we are going to talk about how to use models and setup our sqlite database! Till then, Stay Tuned!